Jonathon Swift--A Modest Proposal


"Whom does Swift satirize in this piece? Identify three targets of satire from "A Modest Proposal" and provide a specific example to prove each assertion."


Swift satirizes the English Society. The targets of satire from "A Modest Proposal" are the church, high society, government, the English people. Swift satirizes government when he says "we neither build houses...nor cultivate land." This refers to the economy of Ireland, and how they do not have enough jobs for the over populated nation. He means that it is the poor leadership in government that leaves the Irish people unemployed. Swift also satirizes the church, or Irish Catholics, by referring to the Irish people calling them "breeders". This relates to the domestic values of the typical Irish Catholic family, by calling them "breeders" he is effectively saying that they regard marriage and family with so little sanctity, that they are simply breeding animals. Swift's satire on the English society comes in when he introduces cannibalism. When he talks about cannibalism, he is actually referring to how a nation takes over another nation. The English people consumes the Irish nation with everything, including the people. He uses the comparison of cannibalism to show the injustice and inhumanity of the English to the Irish. He even uses the idea of cannibalism to show how the higher Irish classes devours the poorer classes within their own society.

Population Decrease is necessary...
 "...They shall on the contrary contribute to the feeding...of many thousands."
"...They shall on the contrary contribute to the feeding...of many thousands."

so then you...
"...a most delicious, nourishing, and wholesome food, whether stewed, roasted, baked, or boiled ...”
"...a most delicious, nourishing, and wholesome food, whether stewed, roasted, baked, or boiled ...”


This nation has long been getting complacent, and the lack of danger in the lives of ordinary citizens is obviously to blame. For almost a generation, the only source of excitement, fear, and danger in people’s lives was the inexpressible thrill they felt as they drove down the road as teenagers, at 3 AM, drunk, with an SUV full of screaming friends and booze.
However, if one keeps a close eye on the goings-on of the world around him, he will be sad to note the appalling figures that document the pathetically low rate of teenage deaths related to driving. For example, in 2005, the United States of America, had only 4,544 deaths due to car crashes and 400,000 injuries due to the same.
Clearly, this is unacceptable.
As number of teenagers killed in car crashes is directly related to the number of teenagers that are driving durnk, one can quite clearly see the disturbing trend as America becomes increasingly lazy and self-assured. With new emphasis on postponing the driving age and more practice before drivers get onto the road, our children are no longer getting the essential invigorating experiences they need and deserve. To counter this, we propose to both lower the driving age to fourteen as well as distribute free alcohol to children under the age of eighteen to raise statistic again. With more 'adrenaline-getting' experiences, this coming generation will be one that is open to try new and revolutionary things, and won't be stuck in the boring drudgery of a scared and unmotivated life.
But some self-proclaimed "do-gooders" decided to take the fear and edginess necessary for a prolific society away from the next generation. These pacifist groups, despicable organizations such as MADD, have indoctrinated our children so that they now seek to avoid ordeals like these that previously served to initiate young people into the deadly world of adult-life. Modern children are missing out on experiences that our parents themselves so enjoyed and cherished - like being in a car where the driver has more alcohol than blood cells in his veins - how could we let them go through life without these essential parts of 'The American Experience'?!
By allowing children to drive at the age of fourteen, we ensure that they will know some of what it feels like to have blood race through the veins as one sees his life flash before his eyes. And, in the off chance that said child is a precociously good driver, the easy access of alcohol will ensure that he gets into an accident before he turns sixteen.
Still, even if these measures aren't enough, there is a light at the end of the tunnel. American can set its goals high and hope to emulate one of our oldest friends – The United Kingdom - which has increased the teenage-driving death rate fom 13.8 to 19.2 (out of 100,000 drivers)...without the assistance of the laws we are now proposing. Thus, Americans can be sure that even if the proposed laws are not sufficient to raise this nation out of its torpor, there is hope that this nation will quickly hop onto whatever rising tide is lifting the teenage automobile accident rate in Britain and ride that wave onto a future glory of middle-aged adrenaline junkies.

A vision of the future that awaits us.
A vision of the future that awaits us.

Modern American Dictionary: Teen Edition

Epic-adj. To be extremely amazing, superb, stunning or outstanding. The term deviates from Epic poems, which usually featured heroic acts, characters that were larger than life, supernatural forces, and intervention of the gods. These conventions were synonymous with the amazing and outstanding feats that the term epic has come to describe.

Use: Wow, you got an epic grade on your Euro test!! How did you get a 100%?

Fail-n. A term used for something that lacks success or is stupid.

Use: You got a 35% on your vocab test??!! That's a Fail.
v. To not succeed, be exceptionally bad at something.
Use: Haha you're girlfriend just broke up with you on the internet? You fail at life.

Both uses are a shortened form of the word "failure", which means an instance of not succeeding or proving unsuccesful.

Win-n. A term used for something that is good or successful. Derrives from the noun "win" which means sucess at a task, but is used differently.

Use: You just asked out the girl of your dreams and she said yes? Congratulations, that's a win!!

Blog- n. an online diary, journal, or forum to post thoughts and reflections. Comes from the combination of "web" and "log".

Use: My friends always go online to check Michael's blog, where he posts stories of what happened in Miss Raub's class every day.

Bro- n. Brother; also can be used to refer to a close friend (male). A shorter form of the word brother, usually used to refer to someone who, although not necessarily a blood relative, one views as closely as a brother.

Use: Hey bro, thanks so much for helping me out last night; I never would have been able to ask Helga out if you hadn't been there.

Cell- n. a portable telephone (also referred to as a "cell phone"). Originates from the term 'cellular telephone', a name given because the phones operate on a network of base stations known as "cell sites".

Use: Hey, can I borrow your cell? I have to call my mom to get her to come pick me up because I missed the bus again.

Old School-adj. Phrase used to describe something from an older era or generation that is still highly regarded and respected. The phrase refers to the older school, or class, of objects and memorabilia from an earlier age.

Use: Wow you have an original Nintendo 64? That's so old school !!

OMG- interjection. An abreviation of "Oh My God", used to convey shock or surprise. An acronym stemming from texting and IMing abreviations to shorten long phrases into shorter words, OMG is now used in face to face conversation quite often.

Use: OMG, did you see what grade Joe got on his chem test?

Sick- adj. An adjective meaning amazing, awe-inspiring, state-of-the-art. The term comes from an ironic twist on the word "sick", meaning to be ill or not well. This ironic use of the word sick is used to convey the opposite of it's original meaning.

Use: OMG, Jack has such a sick car; it has 24 cylinders and runs on pure octane!

Creeper-n. A person who acts in a strange, sometimes stalker-esque manner. This may include things such as eavesdropping, following people, lurking around and always watching other people. The term originates from the "creepy" manner in which a creeper acts.

Use: Josh followed us the entire way home from school in his car, all 463 blocks! What a creeper.

Fail: The Glorious Lack of Success

Alexander Pope--The Rape of the Lock


"The Age of Reason values order, symmetry, and balance. In what way does the style of The Rape of the Lock model Age of Reason values? Use specific examples from the text."


The Rape of the Lock models the values of the Age of Reason in many different ways. The style of The Rape of the Lock is written in heroic couplet, by definition a heroic couplet consists of rhymed pairs of iambic pentameter lines. This quote is an excellent example of the heroic couplet style used through out The Rape of the Lock
A branch of healing Spleenwort in his hand. Then thus address'd the pow'r: "Hail, wayward Queen! Who rule the sex to fifty from fifteen: Parent of vapours and of female wit, Who give th' hysteric, or poetic fit, On various tempers act by various ways, Make some take physic, others scribble plays; Who cause the proud their visits to delay, And send the godly in a pet to pray.
This reflects the value, in The Age of Reason, of order. This poem stays on Heroic couplet through out its entirety, creating a very orderly arrangement for the poem.
The symmetry used through out the poem is exemplified in this quote in Heroic couplet.
One speaks the glory of the British Queen and one describes a charming Indian screen; A third interprets motions, looks, and eyes; At every word a reputation dies
The symmetry is comparing British and Indian with their actions, with how they are viewed. The symmetry is in the comparison and the order is how it is written, which reflects the Age of Reason’s values.
Finally the value of balance is shown within this quote “What dire offence from amorous causes springs, what mighty contests rise from trivial things”. The balance is shown by the couplet used; each couplet is balanced by the following couplet in style with this certain similarity of all the other couplets, make this poem a very balanced work in the Age of Reason.

Addison and Steele

The Valetudinarian: No. 25

This letter is written by a Mr. Addison, a self-proclaimed valetudinarian (a person who is excessively concerned about his poor health or ailments). Whenever he starts reading the description of a disease, he begins to think that he has that disease. When he reads about gout, for instance, he suddenly is aware that he has all the symptoms of gout, minus the pain. He later reads a book about how to cure gout, and, once he follows the advice of the author, believes himself cured. He learns about a chair that acts as a scale, that once you sit in it, the chair measures the exact weight of the person sitting in it. This lets Mr. Addison calculate how much food he eats, how much food he uses for nourishment, how much food turns to fat, etc. etc. He quickly begins to revolve his entire life around this chair: when to eat, when to sleep, when to exercise, how much to exercise, how much to eat (exactly), how much to drink (exactly) and maintain a perfectly balanced body weight. However, although he uses this chair to maintain a healthy lifestyle, he gets sicker and less healthy the more he uses the chair. He concludes by asking for more certain rules and advice to follow to get well.
This article exemplifies the ideas and beliefs associated with the Age of Reason in several ways. The Age of Reason turned to common sense and rationality to solve problems. Mr. Addison turns to 'modern' medicine and what he believes to be an intellectual resolution of problems to diagnose himself. He does not actually go to the doctor, but instead relies on his own logic and reasoning to determine what is 'wrong'.
Today's culture faces several of the same problems Mr. Addison discusses in his letter. Many people in today's society have problems such as hypochondria--constantly believing that they are sick or ill, sometimes based on something they may have read or a list of symptoms they believe to match their own physical ailments. Others in society try to make others believe that they are sick or have mental or physical disabilities that they may not in fact have. Still other citizens in society are overly 'health-conscious'. They try to regulate everything in their lives in a "healthy" way, whether it is how they eat or sleep or exercise.

The Life of a Hypochondriac

French Cookery: No. 148

This essay discusses a dinner at a friend's house that Mr. Addison was invited to. Mr. Addison's friend likes good food and enjoys French cooking. When he sits down at dinner, he realizes that he cannot identify the dishes placed in front of him. He sees something that looks like a "roasted porcupine" but finds out its later just a turkey. He doesn't even bother with some other foods once he hears that they are "delicacies". When he thinks he knows what something is, he finds out soon after that it is either something else entirely or that it was prepared in a cruel or inhumane manner. When desert is brought out, Mr. Addison thinks it is a very extraordinary dish, with lots of decoration, extravagance and pompadour. He cannot bring himself to detract from its beauty by eating it. As soon as the meal is over, he hurries home to eat dinner at his own house: a simple and natural meal with normal food and a few good-natured friends.
This article exemplifies the ideas and beliefs associated with the Age of Reason in several ways. The Age of Reason placed a high value on urbane society and the upper class. Mr. Addison's friend enjoys the elegance and tastefulness of high society and presents this french cooking and culture in line with the appreciation of urbane society. This article also exemplifies the stress of sophistication that the Age of Reason presented. The sophisticated foods and company that Mr. Addison meets when he attends this dinner party are in line with the sophistication and superiority valued by those during the Age of Reason.
Many people in today's culture place a high value on the ideals of the upper class and high society. Many people today believe that they can only truly be happy if they have the fancy things and shiny cars and expensive clothing. There is an obsession with sophistication and who has the most expensive and "first-rate" possessions. People spend thousands of dollars every year on very expensive, high-tech, fancy, or elegant belongings that are not necessary, but establish high standing and rank in society.
"The desert was brought up at last, which in truth was extraordinary as any thing that had come before it"


British Driving Death Statistics:
US Driving Death Statistics:
Car Crash picture:
Picture of stew:
Picture of child in hamburger:
Army Fail Picture:
Fail: The Glorious Lack of success: definition from
Wedding Cake picture: Hypochondriac picture:
Wedding Cake picture: